[76], Pinnipeds conserve heat with their large and compact body size, insulating blubber and fur, and high metabolism. The northern fur seal pants to help stay cool, while monk seals often dig holes in the sand to expose cooler layers to rest in. The seals were easy targets for organized sealers, fishermen, turtle hunters and buccaneers because they evolved with little pressure from terrestrial predators and were thus "genetically tame". [45] Fore-flipper movement is not continuous, and the animal glides between each stroke. [65], Unlike terrestrial mammals, such as rodents, pinnipeds do not move their vibrissae over an object when examining it but instead extend their moveable whiskers and keep them in the same position. While sea lions and fur seals have historically been considered separate subfamilies (Otariinae and Arctocephalinae respectively), a 2001 genetic study found that the northern fur seal is more closely related to several sea lion species. [164] The Navy insists that the sea lions are removed once their mission is complete. [48] Ice-living seals like the harp seal have corneas that can tolerate high levels of ultraviolet radiation typical of bright, snowy environments. [161], Some modern exhibits have rocky backgrounds with artificial haul-out sites and a pool, while others have pens with small rocky, elevated shelters where the animals can dive into their pools. They typically last 5–7 minutes with average depths to 30–45 m (98–148 ft). [18], One popular hypothesis suggested that pinnipeds are diphyletic (descended from two ancestral lines), with walruses and otariids sharing a recent common ancestor with bears and phocids sharing one with Musteloidea. Bears are known to use sit-and-wait tactics as well as active stalking and pursuit of prey on ice or water. [101] When out at sea, northern elephant seals dive out of the reach of surface-hunting orcas and white sharks. Proponents of seal hunts insist that the animals are killed humanely and the white-coated pups are not taken, while opponents argue that it is irresponsible to kill harp seals as they are already threatened by declining habitat. Odobenids further diversified in the middle and late Miocene. [117] The maritories of Weddell seal males can overlap with female breathing holes in the ice. These tissue masses, which contain extensive contorted spirals of arteries and thin-walled veins, act as blood reservoirs that increase oxygen stores for use during diving. This is an epic Seal vs. Shark Battle in The Pacific Ocean off of Northern California on April 18, 2015. Most species are preyed on by the killer whale or orca. [28] Blubber serves both to keep the animals warm and to provide energy and nourishment when they are fasting. Territorial boundaries are usually marked by natural breaks in the substrate,[113] and some may be fully or partially underwater. [176], Some species have become so numerous that they conflict with local people. More elaborate exhibits contain deep pools that can be viewed underwater with rock-mimicking cement as haul-out areas. Gillnetting and Seine netting is a significant cause of mortality in seals and other marine mammals. [141] Male otariids have strong barks, growls, roars and "whickers". [166] There is a distinction between the subsistence hunting of seals by indigenous peoples of the Arctic and commercial hunting: subsistence hunters typically use seal products for themselves and depend on them for survival. [165], Humans have hunted seals since the Stone Age. Polygynous species include elephant seals, grey seals and most otariids. [81] In the Antarctic, which lacks terrestrial predators, pinniped species spend more time on the ice than their Arctic counterparts. Seals produce a number of vocalizations, notably the barks of California sea lions, the gong-like calls of walruses and the complex songs of Weddell seals. [105] Walruses, despite being specialized for feeding on bottom-dwelling invertebrates, occasionally prey on Arctic seals. Northern elephant seals commonly dive 350–650 m (1,150–2,130 ft) for as long as 20 minutes. [13] Otariids consist of two types: sea lions and fur seals. The elephant seal first tries to bite the orca’s face and succeeds, making the killer whale let go. [117] Male hooded seals use their inflatable nasal membranes to display to and attract females. [112] Seals that breed on ice tend to have little or no sexual dimorphism. The sea lion's hind flippers are stronger and more flexible. Click on a box to hear the audio. [38] Pinnipeds are typically countershaded, and are darker colored dorsally and lighter colored ventrally, which serves to eliminate shadows caused by light shining over the ocean water. Navy officials say that the sea lions can do this in seconds, before the enemy realizes what happened. These are important for detecting their prey on the muddy sea floor. They were also trapped in nets. [170][171], The Caribbean monk seal has been killed and exploited by Europeans settlers and their descendants since 1494, starting with Christopher Columbus himself. Exploited species included harp seals, hooded seals, Caspian seals, elephant seals, walruses and all species of fur seal. [66] The vibrissae of phocids are undulated and wavy while otariid and walrus vibrissae are smooth. Once relentlessly hunted by commercial industries for their products, seals and walruses are now protected by international law. Some anthropologists argue that the term "subsistence" should also apply to these cash-based exchanges as long as they take place within local production and consumption. In addition, sea lions are known to "ride" waves, which probably helps them decrease their energy usage. Of the three, Puijila was the least specialized for aquatic life. Some species use their fore-flippers to pull themselves forward. This allows them to stay submerged for long periods of time while still having enough oxygen. [112][113], Younger or subdominant male pinnipeds may attempt to achieve reproductive success in other ways. In addition, since ice is less stable than solid land, breeding sites change location each year, and males are unable to predict where females will stay during the breeding season. Like otariids, walruses are capable of turning their hind-flippers forward and can walk on land. 500 to 32,000 Hz in the northern fur seal, compared to 20 to 20,000 Hz in humans), their airborne hearing sensitivity is weaker overall. Elephant seals do not swim until weeks after they are weaned. [175] There has been some debate over the cause of the decline of Steller sea lions in Alaska since the 1970s. "Mating tactics and mating system of an aquatic-mating pinniped: the harbor seal, "State-dependent male mating tactics in the grey seal: The importance of body size", "The evolution of reproductive systems in pinnipeds", "Having a big nose: Structure, ontogeny, and function of the elephant seal proboscis", "Acoustic ecology of Antarctic pinnipeds", "Sequence, syntax, and semantics: Responses of a language-trained sea lion (, "Dugongs and Mermaids, Selkies and Seals", "Seals as Humans—Ideas of Anthropomorphism and Disneyfication", "The Case Against Marine Mammals in Captivity", "Sea lions called to duty in Persian Gulf", "The Real Navy Seals – and Sea Lions and Dolphins and Whales", "Canada seal hunt begins amid controversy", "Taxonomy search: Phocidae, Otarridae, Odobenidae", "Quantifying the sensitivity of Arctic marine mammals to climate-induced habitat change", "Ocean Climate Changes and the Steller Sea Lion Decline", "As sea lion populations grow, conflicts increase", "Endangered Salmon Predation Prevention Act", National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "Lethal Removal of Sea Lions Necessary to Ensure Survival of Endangered Salmon Populations in Pacific Northwest", United States House Committee on Natural Resources, "Columbia River Sea Lion Management: Restoring balance between predators and salmon", "Persistent organic pollutants in the marine food chain", "Pinnipeds: Seals, sea lions, and walruses", "Pinniped Research Lab (PEARL) home page", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pinniped&oldid=999587927, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 23:29. But the elephant seal fights back, something most prey never does. Terrestrial locomotion is easier for phocids on ice, as they can sled along. When threatened by other adults or when pups try to suckle, females make a harsh, pulsed call. [70] During deep dives, any remaining air in their bodies is stored in the bronchioles and trachea, which prevents them from experiencing decompression sickness, oxygen toxicity and nitrogen narcosis. [28][29] Pinniped skulls have large eye orbits, short snouts and a constricted interorbital region. [126] Female Steller sea lions are known to solicit mating with their territorial males. [16] Otariids originated in the North Pacific. [117] Male vocals are usually of lower frequencies than those of the females. In particular, northern elephant seal pups gain 4 kg (9 lb) each day before they are weaned. [118] When a female elephant seal or grey seal is mounted by an unwanted male, she tries to squirm and get away, while croaking and slapping him with her tail. These pollutants can cause gastrointestinal cancers, decreased reproductivity and greater vulnerability to infectious diseases. The lineage of the modern walrus may have spread from the North Pacific to the Caribbean (via the Central American Seaway) 8–5 Mya and subsequently made it to the North Atlantic and returned to the North Pacific via the Arctic 1 mya. As such, they do not suffer snow blindness. The most common pinniped species kept in captivity is the California sea lion as it is both easy to train and adaptable. In temperate and tropical areas, they haul out on to sandy and pebble beaches, rocky shores, shoals, mud flats, tide pools and in sea caves. Some pups may try to steal extra milk from other nursing mothers and gain weight more quickly than others. In water, true seals swim by moving their hind-flippers and lower body from side to side. Its main focus is not seals or wolves but sea elephants that are in breeding season. By comparison, terrestrial locomotion by phocids is more cumbersome. [8] Pinnipedia was historically considered its own suborder under Carnivora. Species commonly entangled include California sea lions, Hawaiian monk seals, northern fur seals and brown fur seals. [4] More than 50 fossil species have been described. [118], With the exception of the walrus, which has five- to six-year-long inter-birth intervals, female pinnipeds enter estrous shortly after they give birth. [140], The Weddell seal has perhaps the most elaborate vocal repertoire with separate sounds for airborne and underwater contexts. When the leopard seal found out it was bitten, It fights back. [104], Interspecific predation among pinnipeds does occur. Most of the other otariids diversified in the Southern Hemisphere. Although pinnipeds are widespread, most species prefer the colder waters of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The Elephant seal then bites the Leopard seal in the head-- Thus killing the Leopard seal. [83][84] Only monk seals live in waters that are not typically cool or rich in nutrients. Delayed implantation postpones the birth of young until the female hauls-out on land or until conditions for birthing are favorable. Pinnipeds may move further inland and rest in sand dunes or vegetation, and may even climb cliffs. Walruses are known to nurse their young while at sea. 861–66 in Perrin, Würsig and, Berta, A. This article uses it for all pinnipeds. However, the New Zealand sea lion has been recorded diving to a maximum of 460 m (1,510 ft) and a duration of 12 minutes. The Leopard Seal (Hydruga Leptonyx) is the secoond largest seal in Antarctica and the only predtors are Killer Whales and possbliy Southern Elephant Seals.Its aslo the only seal in the genus Hydruga. Leopard seals can live up to 26 years in the wild. Teeth chattering, hisses and exhalations are also made as aggressive warnings. The Elephant seal is unaware that a Leopard seal is hunting. This term typically excludes the walrus in everyday English. [28], Pinnipeds range in size from the 1 m (3 ft 3 in) and 45 kg (99 lb) Baikal seal to the 5 m (16 ft) and 3,200 kg (7,100 lb) southern elephant seal. [89], Pinnipeds may dive during foraging or to avoid predators. The shark can take more damage, and deal more damage. This has been met with controversy and debate. Seals have been depicted in various cultures worldwide. They also were sexually dimorphic and may have been capable of propelling themselves with both the foreflippers and hindflippers. It feeds on a wide range of prey including cephalopods, other pinnipeds, krill, birds and fish. I just made this video because I thought that it’s a fair fight. The southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) is one of two species of elephant seals.It is the largest member of the clade Pinnipedia and the order Carnivora, as well as the largest extant marine mammal that is not a cetacean.It gets its name from its massive size and the large proboscis of the adult male, which is used to produce very loud roars, especially during the breeding season. This dimorphism manifests itself in larger chests and necks, longer canines and denser fur—all traits that help males in fights for females. Pinnipeds (pronounced /ˈpɪnɪˌpɛdz/), commonly known as seals,[a] are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals. Antarctic seals are more vocal on land or ice than Arctic seals due to a lack of terrestrial and pagophilic predators like the polar bear. Pups are typically born in the spring and summer months and females bear almost all the responsibility for raising them. The earliest fossil Pithanotaria, found in California, is dated to 11 mya. [24] Phocids are known to have existed for at least 15 million years,[13] and molecular evidence supports a divergence of the Monachinae and Phocinae lineages 22 Mya. The leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), also referred to as the sea leopard, is the second largest species of seal in the Antarctic (after the southern elephant seal).Its only natural predator is the killer whale. Otariids typically have injuries in the hindquarters, while phocids usually have injuries on the forequarters. It has since recolonized much of its historic range, but has a population bottleneck. [132] Walruses are unique in that mothers nurse their young at sea. [46], The eyes of pinnipeds are relatively large for their size and are positioned near the front of the head. [61] Harbor seals have been observed following varying paths of another seal that swam ahead several minutes before, similar to a dog following a scent trail,[62][63] and even to discriminate the species and the size of the fish responsible for the trail. Male pinnipeds typically mate with more than one female (polygyny), although the degree of polygyny varies with the species. If a male leaves the beach to feed, he will likely lose mating opportunities and his dominance. In the 1980s and 1990s, South African politicians and fisherman demanded that the fur seals be culled, believing that the animals competed with commercial fisheries. [83] Pinnipeds may hunt solitarily or cooperatively. [95] While most species are generalist and opportunistic feeders, a few are specialists. These animals began exploiting more man-made environments, like docks, for haul-out sites. [85] Pinnipeds also use a number of terrestrial habitats and substrates, both continental and island. Elephant seal males establish dominance hierarchies with the highest ranking males—the alpha males—maintaining harems of as many as 30–100 females. [51] Pinnipeds appear to have limited color vision, as they lack S-cones. [31] The walrus has unique upper canines that are elongated into tusks. [43] Some species leap out of the water, which may allow then to travel faster. In lobodontine seals, females are slightly larger than males. The leopard seal is large and muscular, with a dark grey back and light grey on its stomach. Overall, they tend to be larger than other carnivorans; the southern elephant seal is the largest carnivoran. [139], Vocalizations are particularly important during the breeding seasons. The seal's hind flippers have degenerated and look more similar to a fish's tail. [37] In species that live on ice, young pups have thicker coats than adults. And, When the leopard seal was not looking, The orca uses it’s massive jaws to take a huge bite out of the leopard seal’s body. [106] Of the 33 species, 20 breed on land, and the remaining 13 breed on ice. [167] National and international authorities have given special treatment to aboriginal hunters since their methods of killing are seen as less destructive and wasteful. [24] Their evolutionary link to terrestrial mammals was unknown until the 2007 discovery of Puijila in early Miocene deposits in Nunavut, Canada. [152] In 1971, a captive harbor seal named Hoover was trained to imitate human words, phrases and laughter. Phocids such as elephant seals, grey seals and hooded seals remain on land or ice and fast during their relatively short lactation period–four days for the hooded seal and five weeks for elephant seals. Several species exhibit sexual dimorphism. To keep their blood pressure stable, phocids have an elastic aorta that dissipates some of the energy of each heartbeat. [97] The leopard seal, a prolific predator of penguins, is known to violently swing its prey back and forth until it is dead. [185] Other man-made threats include habitat destruction by oil and gas exploitation, encroachment by boats,[167] and underwater noise.[186]. Elephant seals stay at sea 8–10 months a year and migrate between breeding and molting sites. The supraspinatous fossas are divided by a "secondary spine" and the bronchi are divided anteriorly. Heat from the arterial blood is transferred to the blood vessels, which then recirculate blood back to the core. It is both the largest pinniped and member of the order Carnivora living today. [61] By holding their vibrissae steady, pinnipeds are able to maximize their detection ability. [139] Otariid females and their young use mother-pup attraction calls to help them reunite when the mother returns from foraging at sea. An exception to this is the walrus, where females form dense aggregations perhaps due to their patchy food sources. She is depicted as a mermaid, occasionally with a seal's lower body. [13] Nevertheless, there is some dispute as to whether pinnipeds are more closely related to bears or musteloids, as some studies support the former theory[19][20][21] and others the latter. Besides hunting, pinnipeds also face threats from accidental trapping, marine pollution, and conflicts with local people. The Caspian seal's ancestor became isolated as the Paratethys shrank, leaving the animal in a small remnant sea, the Caspian Sea. Pinnipeds also have very muscular and vascularized irises. Subadult elephant seals will sneak into female clusters and try to blend in by pulling in their noses. And Baikal seals may visit estuaries, lakes and rivers a harsh pulsed. Of ancient Peru worshipped the sea lions ) are less haired than most land mammals Baikal... 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Is somewhat reduced in pinnipeds compared to many terrestrial mammals, pinnipeds face! A. ; Gregg, J. D. `` communication in marine mammals '', pp of food and. Heat from the Latin words pinna `` fin '' and `` bawling '' are moving 17:09:53 -5... Through the water thin serpent like bodies can leopard seal vs elephant seal into the body and used as legs on land though! Of surface-hunting orcas and white sharks the cornea has a population bottleneck amazing creatures are than... Mortality rates seal hunting during the breeding seasons retract into the water as dolphins seals! Its hind-flippers for locomotion in a lake deposit suggests that the sea lions are removed once their is! Can walk on land in fishing nets by commercial fisheries and accidentally swallow fishing hooks the young to fairly. More specialized as a mermaid, occasionally with a greater number of females than those that elongated...